WHISTLER’S PIGEONS AND PEACOCKS

The Peacock Room, London 1892, photo by Lemere, V&A

The Peacock Room, London 1892, photo by Lemere, V&A

A small dinner party was held by Whistler on 1 November 1877. This is confirmed by Whistler’s purchase of fresh cod from John S. Charles, a Pimlico fishmonger, on that date. The guests included the architect and surveyor Tom Layland and his wife, and ‘Mr Godwin’ by which Whistler presumably meant the architect Edward William Godwin. 

By this time Godwin was designing a new house for the ambitious painter, a house on Tite Street where he could entertain guests, hold parties and  concerts, and have a studio where both he and art students could work, as well as a fully functioning modern kitchen. Whistler had just finished working on the famous dining Room now known as the Peacock Room in Frederick Leyland’s house at Princes’ Gate- and had fallen out irretrievably with his patron. This, plus the expenses of the new house were factors in Whistler’s bankruptcy in the following year – and, indeed, to the survival of the fishmonger’s bill, for Charles was among Whistler’s creditors.

However, the November dinner party had a straightforward hearty menu suited to the season:

Potage aux poireaux

  Cabillaud –

     Pigeons –

       Côtelettes d’Agneau –

         Mince Pies –

        Macaroni –

Café –

This comprises a starter of leek soup, a simple fish course of cod, then either pigeons or lamb cutlets as the meat course, and two deserts, mince pies and macaroni, followed by coffee. It is surprising that Whistler does not mention any sauces,  although plain boiled cod could perfectly well be served with melted butter. Let’s hope they were using young pigeons ‘pigeonneaux’ and not elderly London pigeons!

Savoy Pigeons, Lithograph, 1896

Savoy Pigeons, Lithograph, 1896

Escoffier records a very simple dish: ‘Pigeonneaux à la Bordelaise‘ which I have adapted:

1 pigeon per person.

Ask the butcher to remove the heads if you think it will put your guests off.

Cut the pigeons in half, flatten them, season with salt and pepper.

Fry them in butter (not too much, an ounce should do, about ten minutes a side.

That’s it!

Plate showing birds, including pigeons, from Mrs Beeton, 1888

Plate showing birds, including pigeons, from Mrs Beeton, 1888

 I’m amused by Mrs Beeton’s illustration, with the poor little pigeon waving its legs in the air, at lower right. I think this plate might turn one into a vegetarian. So my next blog had better be the leek soup!

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WHISTLER IN LIVERPOOL WITH PEACOCKS

Another Whistler exhibition is now open, at the Blue Coat gallery, during the Liverpool Biennale. Whistler spent a significant amount of time in Liverpool during the period 1870-1875, when his chief patron was the Liverpool ship-owner Frederick R. Leyland. He was commissioned to paint portraits of the family and spent weeks, which turned into months, in the luxurious surroundings of the Leylands’ home, Speke Hall, which is hardly surprising : its a wonderful half-timbered house, now managed by the National Trust.

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Speke Hall: The Avenue, etching and drypoint, 1870-1878, (G.101 9/14)

Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool (Acc. no: WAG 9066)

Image credit: photography@liverpoolmuseums.org.uk

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Speke Hall, photograph credit: M.F. MacDonald, Whistler Etchings Project, University of Glasgow

 Whistler’s portraits were painted partly at Speke, partly in London, and only the portraits of Leyland himself and his wife Frances could be said to be completed. The splendid Symphony in Fleshcolour and pink: Portrait of Mrs Leyland is now in the Frick Collection, New York, and Arrangement in Black, the portrait of Leyland, in the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington DC. Thus, since neither gallery can lend, they can never be re-united.

However, the Blue Coat has brought together some of the etchings and drypoints that Whistler made at Speke Hall- including the beautiful drypoint of Frances Leyland, The Velvet Dress, and these set the scene for a focus show on Whistler as artist, designer, and promoter of his vision of art.

Velvet dress

The Velvet Dress (Mrs Leyland), drypoint, 1873/4 (G.120 5/7)

Hunterian Art Gallery (GLAHA 46774)

Photo © The Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery, University of Glasgow 2014

A spectacular recreation of the Fighting Peacocks panel from the Peacock Room, as painted for F.R.Leyland’s London house, was painted by set designer Olivia du Manceau (with occasional input from enthusiastic Blue Coat staff) and it is a delightful surprise to come on this up a flight of stairs in the galleries. The original was moved to the Freer Gallery of Art a century ago, but for a few months we can enjoy this vivid and painterly response to it (complete with blue and white Chinese porcelain on the shelves)  in Liverpool.

Peacock-Room-RogerSinek

Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room, 1876-77 (above, and detail, below). Reproduction by Olivia du Monceau, 2014. Installation view from Liverpool Biennial 2014. Photographs by Roger Sinek.

Peacock-Room-detail2-RogerSinek

Central to the Blue Coat show are photographs, drawings and caricatures of Whistler, and the sharp, witty, serious, perceptive words of the artist himself. Whistler brings art to life: a picture of both the artist and his life and art emerges from the works and words as you go through the show. Here are his exuberant comments to the American sculptor Thomas Waldo Storey on 5 February 1883, describing the exhibition of his Venice etchings at the Fine Art Society:

Well great Shebang on Saturday 17. Feb – Opening of Show and Private View – “Arrangement in White & Yellow”. … in Bond Street – where I have won my battle and am on good terms with the Fine Art Society … All the World there – Lady Archie – the Prince – … great glorification – and the Butterfly rampant and all over the place! I can’t tell you how perfect – though you would instinctively know that there isn’t a detail forgotten – Sparkling and dainty – … and all so sharp – White walls – of different whites – with yellow painted mouldings – not gilded! – Yellow velvet curtains – pale yellow matting – Yellow sofas and little chairs – lovely little table yellow – own design – with yellow pot and Tiger lilly! Forty odd superb etchings round the white walls in their exquisite white frames – with their little butterflies – large White butterfly on yellow curtain – and Yellow butterfly on white wall – and finally servant in yellow livery (!) handing Catalogue in brown paper cover same size as Ruskin pamphlet!!! And such a catalogue! – The last inspiration! – … I take my dear Waldo, all this I have collected of the silly drivel of the wise fools who write, and I pepper & salt it about the Catalogue under the different etchings I exhibit! – …I give ’em Hell! …The whole thing is a joy – and indeed a masterpiece of Mischief!’

 The Blue Coat show focuses on Whistler’s designs for exhibitions, and includes rare sketches, watercolours, and etchings that were shown in Whistler’s distinctive artist-designed exhibitions.  For instance, he designed a velarium to hang over the exhibition rooms of the Royal Society of British Artists, during his brief and stormy interlude as President of the society. His proposal for a Patent application is on view, as is the Blue Coat’s evocative recreation of the velarium, a muslin cloth hung as a canopy from the ceiling and effectively diffusing the light and focussing attention on the works of art, and not the spectators.

Velarium-MarkMcNulty

James McNeill Whistler: exhibition view at the Bluecoat for Liverpool Biennial 2014.

Photograph by Mark McNulty.

As you see in this photograph, the spectators found plenty to enjoy, challenge and discuss in this exhibition. Go and see what you think!

 NOTES:

James McNeill Whistler, The Blue Coat, School Lane, Liverpool, curated by Mai Abu ElDahab and Rosie Cooper. Liverpool Biennial, until 26 October 2014

Whistler’s letter to Waldo Storey is listed in:

The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 1855-1903, edited by Margaret F. MacDonald, Patricia de Montfort and Nigel Thorp. On-line edition, University of Glasgow.

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WHISTLER’S HAT

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IN THE YEAR 1860, during the reign of Queen Victoria, the expatriate American, James McNeill Whistler, sat down by the London docks to sketch a crowd on a ferry boat. The result, a small etching called Penny Passengers, Limehouse is one of Whistler’s rarest works. It is currently on view in the exhibition An American in London: Whistler and the Thames at the Freer Gallery of Art. The frequent ferry boats from Limehouse would take passengers, for a penny, upriver or across the river Thames. The price was low: twelve pennies made one shilling, and twenty shillings, one pound sterling (£). A penny would buy, for instance, a loaf or two of bread. The wages for these passengers and sailors could well have been between 20 and 25 shillings a week, although many earned much less.

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THE ART CRITIC Frederick Wedmore said that they were ‘standing in a large ferry-boat, or little steam packet, that is to cross the River’ but since the boat itself is not visible, the people could be standing on a pier awaiting the ferry. It is a vivid sketch, unfinished (at least there is a lot of space left empty) and it is likely that it was the quick record of a scene that changed completely within minutes as the ferry set off across the broad river.  

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Penny Passengers, etching and drypoint (G.71)

Image credit © Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution

(Acc. No. 1898.299)

 

ONLY FIVE impressions of Penny Passengers, Limehouse are known though Whistler may have planned more. It is little known and has rarely been exhibited. Thus it is a treat to see it at the Freer/Sackler in the context of Whistler’s studies of the river. and the men and women who worked by or on the river, or crossed it daily on their way to work. The river was a vital highway, the lifeblood of what was then the busiest port in the world. This etching shows barges, a side wheel paddle steamer, small sailing boat and masses of larger sailing boats moored in midstream.

THE FIGURES are as varied as the boats. There are women in summer bonnets trimmed with ribbons and lace, one carrying a parasol, and men in the extremely tall top hats of the period. Two men wearing caps may be sailors. Finally one man has a low-crowned, wide-brimmed straw hat, of the sort Whistler wears in his self-portrait, Whistler with a hat of 1859 – drawn a year before the Penny Passengers.

 

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Whistler with a hat, drypoint (G.44)

Image credit © Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution

 (Acc. No. 1898.289)  

HOWEVER, in one photograph Whistler is seen in the sort of headgear associated with London clerks and businessmen: a bowler hat. A photograph, taken about this time, shows him with curly locks barely suppressed under a slightly rakish bowler.  It’s a great photo and not surprisingly, Dan Sutherland chose it for the cover of his excellent new biography of Whistler, A Life for Arts Sake (Yale University Press, 2014). The controversial Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (Detroit Institute of Art) acts as a fantastic backdrop to the artist, who looks as if he has just spent a long night in the pleasure gardens, watching the same rockets.

 

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AND a final note: When the Whistler show opened at the Freer Gallery in May, there was a preview one evening featuring Victorian dress (a lot of crinolines and bonnets) and moustaches and bowler hats were given out to the visitors. Rejecting the moustaches, my colleague Patricia de Montfort and I sported dapper bowlers. Our companion, Howard Kaplan, entered thoroughly into the spirit of the evening, while researching a Whistler blog for the Freer : see his Mother’s Day blog at http://bento.si.edu/from-the-collections/american-art-from-the-collections/mother-knows-best/

 

 
Whistler 2014

REFERENCE
Margaret F. MacDonald, Grischka Petri, Meg Hausberg, and Joanna Meacock, James McNeill Whistler: The Etchings, a catalogue raisonné, University of Glasgow, 2012, online website at http://etchings.arts.gla.ac.uk.

http://www.victorianlondon.org/finance/money.htm

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THE LIFE, DEATH AND LIFE OF A ROOM

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J.McN. Whistler: The Peacock Room, Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC

The Liverpool shipping magnate Frederick R. Leyland gave Whistler permission to modify certain details in the dining room at 49  Princes’ Gate, his London home.  What emerged was a complete reworking of the room as Harmony in Blue and Gold: The Peacock Room. Whistler held a Press View on 9 February 1877 (without Leyland’s permission), and distributed a pamphlet describing the decorative scheme:

The Peacock is taken as a means of carrying out this arrangement.

A pattern, invented from the Eye of the Peacock, is seen in the ceiling spreading from the lamps. Between them is a pattern devised from the breast-feathers.

These two patterns are repeated throughout the room.

In the cove, the Eye will be seen running along beneath the small breast-work or throat-feathers.

On the lowest shelf the Eye is again seen, and on the shelf above – these patterns are combined: the Eye, the Breast-feathers, and the Throat.

Beginning again from the blue floor, on the dado is the breast-work, BLUE ON GOLD, while above, on the Blue wall, the pattern is reversed, GOLD ON BLUE.

Above the breast-work on the dado the Eye is again found, also reversed, that is GOLD ON BLUE, as hitherto BLUE ON GOLD.

The arrangement is completed by the Blue Peacocks on the Gold shutters, and finally the Gold Peacocks on the Blue wall. 

By the summer, artist and patron had quarrelled and Whistler was banned from the house. After Leyland’s death, in 1892, 49 Prince’s Gate failed to sell. Whistler and his wife were concerned about the fate of the room. They wrote to art dealers –  E.G. Kennedy in New York, and Alexander Reid, in Glasgow – urging them to buy it.  ‘Dont you know anyone in Glasgow who would make an offer for the Peacock Room?’ she wrote to Reid on 1 May 1892, ‘It could with care be moved.’ 

J.S. Sargent urged Isabella Stewart Gardner to buy the room for Boston Public Library. Stanford White commented: ‘The house is now in the hands of the Philistines, and is being gutted and torn down preparatory to furbishing up in the latest modern style.’ The room was bought by Mrs Watney of the brewing family, and then in 1903 by Obach’s,London dealers; it was dismantled and shipped to the great Whistler collector, Charles Lang Freer. For years it was enshrined in his house in Ferry Avenue, Detroit.  At Freer’s death in 1919 it was removed to the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC. Recent expert conservation removed layers of over-painting to reveal the original fine brushwork, and today it stands triumphal, a vivid blue and gold box within the elegant halls of the Freer Gallery of Art: a happy, almost a miraculous  ending.

Such rooms are vulnerable, as recent events here in Glasgow show. As I write this, firemen, staff, librarians and conservators are assessing the damage to the most beautiful room in Britain: the Library designed by Charles Rennie Mackintosh for Glasgow School of Art, and built between 1907-1909.

 

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Charles Rennie Mackintosh: The Library, Glasgow School of Art

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Scottish Fire and rescue: GSA Library after the fire.

I watched the School burning on Friday 23 May, a terrifying and heart-breaking sight. Yes, everyone got out safely and due to the courage and determination of Glasgow firemen most of the building, the museum and archives are safe. But the Library is gone with its precious artwork, books and journals: I pray that it will have a future life, fully recreated, at the core of an active art school buzzing with students and art lovers, as secure and beautiful as the Peacock Room.  

GSA APPEAL: If any of my kind readers would like to offer assistance please visit
http://www.gsa.ac.uk/support-gsa/how-to-support/mackintosh-building-fire-fund/

The Peacock Room can be visited after seeing the current exhibition:

M.F. MacDonald and P. de Montfort, curators: ‘An American in London: Whistler and the Thames’, Dulwich Picture Gallery2013–2014: Addison Gallery of American Art, 1 February-13 April 2014; Freer Gallery of Art, May 2–August 17, 2014.

SOURCES

The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 1855-1903, edited by Margaret F. MacDonald, Patricia de Montfort and Nigel Thorp. On-line edition, University of Glasgow, website at:

http://www.whistler.arts.gla.ac.uk/correspondence/ including Beatrice Whistler to A Reid, GUW 11635; Stanford White to Whistler, [20 September 1895, GUW 03724].

 

 

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WAY’s WHISTLER and WHISTLER’s WAY

One of the pleasures of curating an exhibition is selecting and presenting great works of art: another is meeting lots of interesting people. At Dulwich Picture Gallery I had the pleasure of meeting Charlotte Way, relative of Whistler’s lithographic printers Thomas Way and his son Thomas R. Way. She has kindly allowed me to reproduce here photographs of the Ways, father and son.  Image

 

This shows the young artist/lithographer Thomas R. Way, looking rather dashing. His correspondence with Whistler and book Memories of James McNeill Whistler (published in 1912), provide penetrating insights into the seriousness of Whistler as artists, craftsman and print-maker.

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Another portrait, a photo of Way senior, Master Printer, shows a gentle, smiling, pleasant character, his looks concealing an astute business mind and strong sensibility in print-making. He had his own personal recipes for lithotint and refused to part with them, even to Whistler, although he instructed Whistler in its use, under his professional eye, in the printing office.

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Study No. 1: Mr Thomas Way, 1896, lithograph (C.153), Hunterian.

Way’s son recorded that this portrait of his father was painted by gas-light late on a dark winter afternoon in 1896: the flickering light of the gas is echoed in the flickering, grainy strokes of the lithographic crayon.

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Way printed proofs of Whistler’s last Nocturne,The Thames, which was drawn by the artist from the Savoy Hotel in 1896. Whistler and his wife Beatrice stayed at the hotel when she was very ill, struck with the cancer that caused herd eath in the following summer. The devastating associations of this lithotint with Beatrice’s suffering and death resulted in Whistler’s refusal to allow Way to print it. Way begged to be allowed to print a limited edition, because it was so very atmospheric and beautiful, but the darkness of the view reflected the depth of Whistler’s grief. Sadly, not only would he not allow it to be printed, but he broke with the Ways soon afterwards. Perhaps they were associated in his mind with the happiness of his early married life, when Beatrice had encouraged a revived interest in lithography. Of perhaps, in his overwrought state, he did not realise how foolish it was to quarrel with the printers who had printed so many of his finest iithographs.

The Thames, Whistler’s last Nocturne, stars in the show that opens next week at the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington DC: An American in Paris: Whistler and the Thames. I am looking forward to it: and, as co-curator, highly recommend it to anyone in range of Washington!

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A FLIGHT OF WHISTLER BUTTERFLIES

In 1869, Whistler made a large and elaborate drawing of a nude figure, which was intended to be transferred to canvas, a decorative scheme that was never completed. However, the drawing or cartoon, is now in the Freer Gallery of Art, and it bore, instead of Whistler’s signature, a monogram of his initials ‘JW’ in the form of a butterfly. The ‘J’ was the body, and the ‘W’ the wings.

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Venus, black crayon and white chalk on brown paper,

119.4 x 61.4 cms,

Freer Gallery of Art, F1904.66a-b

This precise butterfly with its angular wings is visible on a square cartouche at lower right. This monogram evolved over the years into the butterfly that became Whistler’s mark, as distinctive as a signature. Within a couple of years he was applying it to his paintings, including the famous portrait of his mother, and views of the Thames.

 In 1871, two paintings of the Thames were exhibited at the Dudley Gallery in London (cat. nos. 225 and 265), Variations in Violet and Green (now in the Musée d’Orsay) and ‘Harmony in Blue-green’ (which was later renamed Nocturne: Blue and Silver – Chelsea and is now in the Tate.

 Whistler was away in Liverpool, leaving his faithful followers, Walter and Henry Greaves, to check on the paintings. ‘I am very glad you and Harry have been to the Dudley – and that the two “harmonies” look swell among the crowd’, he wrote to Walter, adding, ‘Have they managed to fit in the little gold flat you know that Clay took down to the Gallery and that they wouldn’t let him put in the frame, but fixed it in themselves? Does it look all right? They have not taken off too much of the butterfly have they?’ 

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Nocturne: Blue and Silver – Chelsea (Tate) in the Tretyakow Gallery:

(I took this snap while the show ‘Whistler in Russia’ was being hung).

The butterfly is on the frame at lower right.

At the Dulwich Gallery, the pictures were reviewed favourably by the resident art critic of The Times, Tom Taylor on 14 November 1871:

 ‘’The colour, consistently with the theory of the painter, is carried out into the frames by means of delicate diaperings and ripplings of faint greens and moony blues on their gold and the Japanese influence in which the painter delights is carried even to the introduction of the coloured cartouche, which on Japanese screens bears the address of the painter or seller.’

 It is possible this refers to the rather cramped butterfly painted on the flat between the reeded surfaces of the picture frame.  The other picture in the Dudley exhibition of 1871 was also signed with a butterfly, quite a small one, and presumably both the frame design and the butterfly were as Whistler wanted them. Variations in Violet and Green is signed with a butterfly and dated ‘71’ on the right, and signed with a butterfly on the frame at upper left.

variations-in-violet-and-green-maroney orsay

In May 2014, Variations in Violet and Green will be reunited for the first time in a century with its companion piece, Variations in Pink and Grey: Chelsea in the exhibition An American in London: Whistler and the Thames at the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC.

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 Variations in Pink and Grey: Chelsea

Freer Gallery of Art: F1902.249a-b 

There is a little red and gold butterfly on the frame at left, and a small blue butterfly on a cartouche (which could be interpreted as a signboard) in the painting itself, also at left. Both are variations on Whistler’s original butterfly. The butterfly was to metamorphose further over the next 30 years, adding and losing veins on the wings, antennae, and occasionally, a sting!

 You could say that it became the symbol for Whistler himself, a very serious butterfly.

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             Glasgow University Library Special Collections Department    

 

REFERENCE

The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 1855-1903, edited by Margaret F. MacDonald, Patricia de Montfort and Nigel Thorp; including The Correspondence of Anna McNeill Whistler, 1855-1880, edited by Georgia Toutziari.

On-line edition, University of Glasgow.

http://www.whistler.arts.gla.ac.uk/correspondence

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WHISTLER’S GHOSTS: Margaret MacDonald and Nadine Loach

Whistler’s oil paintings of the Thames, combining closely observed realistic views, expressive brushwork and atmospheric colour, reward close examination. However, they can also conceal surprises, the ghostly records of earlier work. Xrays of two paintings by Whistler have resulted in a remarkable discovery. The paintings are Brown and Silver: Old Battersea Bridge (Addison Gallery of American Art) and The Last of Old Westminster (Boston Museum of Fine Arts).

Brown and Silver: Old Battersea Bridge - James McNeill Whistler

Brown and Silver was commissioned in 1859, probably completed in 1862, and first exhibited in 1865. The Last of Old Westminster is signed and dated 1862.

James Abbott McNeill Whistler, The Last of Old Westminster, 1862, oil on canvas, 60. 96 x 78.1. cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, A. Shuman Collection

The Last of Old Westminster

Photograph Copyright 2014 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

It has long been known, from an xray, that there is a self-portrait of the artist, painted at right angles to the Thames riverscape, under Brown and Silver: Old Battersea Bridge.

OBB_1928 55_conservation_2

It shows Whistler at work, painting with brush in hand, but was left unfinished and partly rubbed down. Nevertheless it is a vivid portrayal of the young artist, and was probably painted either in Paris or – more likely –  in London. Either he was not satisfied with the portrait or he needed a canvas to start the painting  Old Battersea Bridge, which was commissioned by the Greek collector Alexander C. Ionides after the Royal Academy exhibition of 1859. If the Bridge is looked at under raking light, traces of the ghostly Whistler can still be seen.

However, we did not know until recently that The Last of Old Westminster was also painted over a portrait, that of a seated woman, possibly a woman reading, which was also painted at right angles to the bridge, and partly rubbed down.

It was Nadine Loach, at Dulwich Picture Gallery, who highlighted this as a significant discovery, and followed up first tantalising piece of information, which noted that there was a figure underneath the painting of Westminster Bridge. This information came in while the picture hung at Dulwich Picture Gallery, but too late to be included in the catalogue. Hopefully it will entertain visitors to the show while it is in Andover and Washington. 

Although it is difficult to be certain, the woman, as seen in the xray, looks like Whistler’s Irish model Joanna Hiffernan. A detail from a drypoint portrait of ‘Jo’, reversed, is illustrated below for comparison.

Whistler_39 44_smallJo_detail_HAG_K0780302_001

The two portraits could be considered a pair: they are close in size, Brown and Silver: Old Battersea Bridge being 63.5 x 76.2 cms and The Last of Old Westminster, slightly different in proportion, at 60.96 x 78.1 cms. It is possible that they recorded a significant stage in the relationship between artist and model, as partners in the creation of works of art.

However,  either these intimate portraits were sacrificed in order to make way for more saleable paintings of the river Thames, or Whistler simply felt that the portraits were not working out. Despite his close relationship with Jo, his model, mistress and partner, or perhaps because of it, Whistler may have felt that he could not complete, hang or exhibit two such personal images. And so they were sacrificed for two immensely saleable, exhibitable – and very beautiful – paintings of Thames bridges.

The two bridge pictures are currently on view in the exhibition An American in London: Whistler and the Thames at the Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, and move, in May, to the Freer Gallery of Art in Washington DC.

Further technical examination of the paintings may well confirm these tentative suggestions; and hopefully will be published in due course in an online catalogue of Whistler’s paintings.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS:
Many thanks to Nadine Loach and colleagues at Dulwich Picture Gallery, to James M. Sousa at the Addison Gallery of American Art, and to Marta Fodor and colleagues in Boston.
CREDITS:

Brown and Silver: Old Battersea Bridge, 1859-62, oil on canvas, 63.5 x 76.2 cms, Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, MA., Gift of Cornelius Bliss, 1928.55.

The Last of Old Westminster, 1862, Oil on canvas, 60.96 x 78.1 cm, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, A. Shuman Collection, Abraham Shuman Fund, 1939.44.

SOURCES: 

A. McLaren Young, M.F. MacDonald, Robin Spencer with H. Miles, The Paintings of James McNeill Whistler, Yale University Press, 1980.

 The Correspondence of James McNeill Whistler, 1855-1903, edited by Margaret F. MacDonald, Patricia de Montfort and Nigel Thorp; including The Correspondence of Anna McNeill Whistler, 1855-1880, edited by Georgia Toutziari. Online edition, University of Glasgow.http://www.whistler.arts.gla.ac.uk/correspondence

Margaret F. MacDonald, Grischka Petri, Meg Hausberg, and Joanna Meacock, James McNeill Whistler: The Etchings, a catalogue raisonné, University of Glasgow, 2012, online website at http://etchings.arts.gla.ac.uk.

M.F. MacDonald and P. de Montfort, curators: ‘An American in London: Whistler and the Thames’, Dulwich Picture Gallery 2013–2014: Addison Gallery of American Art, 1 February-13 April 2014; Freer Gallery of Art, May 2–August 17, 2014.

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